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2016 Vol.24 Issue.1,Published 2016-03-30

1 A multidimensional examination of performances of HSR (High-Speed Rail) systems
Milan Janić
This paper deals with a multidimensional examination of the infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, social, and environmental performances of high-speed rail (HSR) systems, including their overview, analysis of some real-life cases, and limited (analytical) modeling. The infrastructural performances reflect design and geometrical characteristics of the HSR lines and stations. The technical/technological performances relate to the characteristics of rolling stock, i.e., high-speed trains, and supportive facilities and equipment, i.e., the power supply, signaling, and traffic control and management system(s). The operational performances include the capacity and productivity of HSR lines and rolling stock, and quality of services. The economic performances refer to the HSR systems' costs, revenues, and their relationship. The social performances relate to the impacts of HSR systems on the society such as congestion, noise, and safety, and their externalities, and the effects in terms of contribution to the local and global/country socialeconomic development. Finally, the environmental performances of the HSR systems reflect their energy consumption and related emissions of green house gases, land use, and corresponding externalities.
2016 Vol. 24 (1): 1-21 [Abstract] ( 4619 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1115KB] ( 8947 )
22 Improvement of railway performance: a study of Swedish railway infrastructure
Yamur K. Al-Douri, Phillip Tretten, Ramin Karim
The volume of rail traffic was increased by 5% from 2006 to 2010, in Sweden, due to increased goods and passenger traffic. This increased traffic, in turn, has led to a more rapid degradation of the railway track, which has resulted in higher maintenance costs. In general, degradation affects comfort, safety, and track quality, as well as, reliability, availability, speed, and overall railway performance. This case study investigated the needs of railway stakeholders responsible for analysing the track state and what information is necessary to make good maintenance decisions. The goal is to improve the railway track performance by ensuring increased availability, reliability, and safety, along with a decreased maintenance cost. Interviews of eight experts were undertaken to learn of general areas in need of improvement, and a quantitative analysis of condition monitoring data was conducted to find more specific information. The results show that by implementing a long-term maintenance strategy and by conducting preventive maintenance actions maintenance costs would be reduced. In addition to that, problems with measured data, missing data, and incorrect location data resulted in increased and unnecessary maintenance tasks. The conclusions show that proactive solutions are needed to reach the desired goals of improved safety, improved availability, and improved reliability. This also includes the development of a visualisation tool and a life cycle cost model for maintenance strategies.
2016 Vol. 24 (1): 22-37 [Abstract] ( 2848 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2267KB] ( 485 )
38 Derailment risk and dynamics of railway vehicles in curved tracks: Analysis of the effect of failed fasteners
Silvia Morales-Ivorra, Julia Irene Real, César Hernández, Laura Montalbán
The effect of the fastener's failure in a railway track on the dynamic forces produced in the wheel-rail contact is studied using the simulation software VAMPIRE to assess the derailment risk of two different vehicles in two curves with distinct characteristics. First, a 3D-FEM model of a real track is constructed, paying special attention to fasteners, and calibrated with displacement data obtained experimentally during a train passage. This numerical model is subsequently used to determine the track vertical and lateral stiffness. This study evidences that although the track can practically lose its lateral stiffness as a consequence of the failure of 7 consecutive fasteners, the vehicle stability would not be necessarily compromised in the flawed zone. Moreover, the results reveal that the uncompensated acceleration and the distance along which the fasteners are failed play an important role in the dynamic behavior of the vehicle-track system, influencing strongly the risk of derailment.
2016 Vol. 24 (1): 38-47 [Abstract] ( 3312 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1761KB] ( 451 )
48 Calibration of a rule-based intelligent network simulation model
A. A. Memon, M. Meng, Y. D. Wong, S. H. Lam
This paper is focused on calibration of an intelligent network simulation model (INSIM) with reallife transportation network to analyse the INSIM's feasibility in simulating commuters' travel choice behaviour under the influence of real-time integrated multimodal traveller information (IMTI). A transportation network model for the central and western areas of Singapore was simulated in PARAMICS and integrated with INSIM expert system by means of an application programming interface to form the INSIM. Upon calibration, INSIM was able to realistically present complicated scenarios in which real-time IMTI was provided to commuters and the network performance measures being recorded.
2016 Vol. 24 (1): 48-61 [Abstract] ( 2837 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 3497KB] ( 598 )
62 A data mining approach to characterize road accident locations
Sachin Kumar, Durga Toshniwal
Data mining has been proven as a reliable technique to analyze road accidents and provide productive results. Most of the road accident data analysis use data mining techniques, focusing on identifying factors that affect the severity of an accident. However, any damage resulting from road accidents is always unacceptable in terms of health, property damage and other economic factors. Sometimes, it is found that road accident occurrences are more frequent at certain specific locations. The analysis of these locations can help in identifying certain road accident features that make a road accident to occur frequently in these locations. Association rule mining is one of the popular data mining techniques that identify the correlation in various attributes of road accident. In this paper, we first applied k-means algorithm to group the accident locations into three categories, high-frequency, moderate-frequency and low-frequency accident locations. k-means algorithm takes accident frequency count as a parameter to cluster the locations. Then we used association rule mining to characterize these locations. The rules revealed different factors associated with road accidents at different locations with varying accident frequencies. The association rules for high-frequency accident location disclosed that intersections on highways are more dangerous for every type of accidents. High-frequency accident locations mostly involved two-wheeler accidents at hilly regions. In moderate-frequency accident locations, colonies near local roads and intersection on highway roads are found dangerous for pedestrian hit accidents. Low-frequency accident locations are scattered throughout the district and the most of the accidents at these locations were not critical. Although the data set was limited to some selected attributes, our approach extracted some useful hidden information from the data which can be utilized to take some preventive efforts in these locations.
2016 Vol. 24 (1): 62-72 [Abstract] ( 2951 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 776KB] ( 685 )
73 Injury severity analysis: comparison of multilevel logistic regression models and effects of collision data aggregation
Taimur Usman, Liping Fu, Luis F. Miranda-Moreno
This paper describes an empirical study aiming at identifying the main differences between different logistic regression models and collision data aggregation methods that are commonly applied in road safety literature for modeling collision severity. In particular, the research compares three popular multilevel logistic models (i.e., sequential binary logit models, ordered logit models, and multinomial logit models) as well as three data aggregation methods (i.e., occupant based, vehicle based, and collision based). Six years of collision data (2001-2006) from 31 highway routes from across the province of Ontario, Canada were used for this analysis. It was found that a multilevel multinomial logit model has the best fit to the data than the other two models while the results obtained from occupant-based data are more reliable than those from vehicle-and collision-based data. More importantly, while generally consistent in terms of factors that were found to be significant between different models and data aggregation methods, the effect size of each factor differ substantially, which could have significant implications for evaluating the effects of different safety-related policies and countermeasures.
2016 Vol. 24 (1): 73-87 [Abstract] ( 2872 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1002KB] ( 451 )
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