|Abstract To avoid stray current and maintain the benefit of no phase-split in the DC traction power supply system, an AC traction power supply system was proposed for the urban public transport such as metro and light rail transit. The proposed system consists of a main substation (MSS) and cable traction network (CTN). The MSS includes a single-phase main traction transformer and a negative-sequence compensation device, while the CTN includes double-core cables, traction transformers, overhead catenary system, rails, etc. Several key techniques for the proposed system were put forward and discussed, which can be summarized as (1) the power supply principle, equivalent circuit and transmission ability of the CTN, the cable-catenary matching technique, and the selection of catenary voltage level;(2) the segmentation technology and status identification method for traction power supply network, distributed and centralized protection schemes, etc.;(3) a power supply scheme for single-line MSS and a power supply scheme of MSS shared by two or more lines. The proposed industrial frequency single-phase AC traction power supply system shows an excellent technical performance, good economy, and high reliability, hence provides a new alternative for metro and urban rail transit power supply systems.